Those charts showed that a rocky underwater feature known as Six Mile Shoal was actually a continuous underwater ridge stretching miles from northeastern Michigan to southern Ontario. Rather, it would have been a land bridge, with icy lakes on either side and the receding glacial ice sheet just a few hundred miles to the north. The ridge would probably have remained much colder than the mainland, offering a refuge in a slowly warming world for animals and vegetation adapted to very cold environments. Such isolated pockets of archaic ecosystems that endure after broad continent-wide climate shifts are known as refugia. And if herds of caribou had once migrated across this landscape, he reasoned, there were probably people hunting them. But evidence for this way of life has been scant. Acidic soils around the Great Lakes break down bones quickly, making it difficult to find the remains of caribou—or of any ancient animal—in the region. Any stone hunting structures that may have existed were likely either knocked down by later settlers or are impossible to distinguish from walls and rock piles created by modern inhabitants. Though the lake is notoriously unpredictable and rough on the surface, its cold lower reaches are surprisingly calm, with gentle currents and feet of visibility.

The Age of the Earth

Archaeologists consider a culture new when its relics are found to have undergone a decisive change in character, but they cannot definitely determine whether the reason for the change was an entirely new population, an alien conquest, or simply a peaceful cultural interchange. The Comb-Ceramic people inherited their stone implements from an older, pre-Ceramic culture, which, at least, signifies that an unbroken contact with the earlier inhabitants of the country had existed.

Some researchers assume that, during the middle phase of the Comb-Ceramic culture, new racial types from the plains of eastern Europe and from the Baltic regions merged with the indigenous population. On the basis of findings made east of Finland, anthropologists have ascertained that the Comb-Ceramic population was short, longskulled with an admixture of short-skulled “Mongoloid” types.

Historians often mention Varangians in connection with certain events on the Eastern shores of the Baltic and northern Russia. Let’s look at some explanations from different perspectives.

The Little Ice Age on James Ross Island resulted in the advance of polythermal glaciers and the formation of large ice-cored moraines with a thin sediment cover.

From this was recovered the deepest ice core record to date. Comparative data between these two deep cores have allowed scientists to develop an ice core-derived paleoenvironmental record dating back greater than , years BP BP means “before present” and “BP” is defined as In other words, the ice has been confirmed to be as old as the collective measurements indicate.

These data alone destroy the core doctrine of the theory of Young Earth Creationism that the Earth is only about 6, years old. In addition to the actual age of the ice at any given depth in the core, scientists can also determine the mean temperature of the Earth’s past climate for different times and ages by measuring the ratio of the isotopes of oxygen O16 and O18 gas present in the CO2. Secular critics of Young Earth Creationism cite the very existence of the Greenland Ice Sheet and the paleoenvironmental record it contains as well as the data found in ice cores from the glaciers on Kilimanjaro in Africa and Huascaran in Peru as absolute proof that the Earth is older than 6, years and that Noah’s flood did not occur, since there are no indications of a flood in the ice core layers.

On the first point they are absolutely correct. On the second point, we disagree that the lack of direct evidence in the ice proves that a global flood did not take place at all. There is certainly much “indirect” evidence to consider. The ice core records, whether in Greenland or mountain top glaciers around the globe, are replete with “melt” indicators.

These are layers where an indeterminate amount of the surface ice has been melted between accumulations. The resolution of the layer dating at GISP2 is about 3.

The 800 year lag in CO2 after temperature – graphed

Daly “Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote – The droughte of March hath perced to the roote, And bathed every veyne in swich licour Of which vertu ungendred is the flour;” – from The Canterbury Tales, by Geoffrey Chaucer, “Our years are turned upside down; our summers are no summers; our harvests are no harvests! In their previous report [33], the IPCC illustrated their, then, understanding of how global climate had changed, not just during the previous 95 years, but also the past 1, years.

In so doing they presented this graph Fig 1. Historical records from all over Europe, and Greenland attest to the reality of both events, and their profound impact on human society.

Dating depends on scientific methods. Cores through deep ocean-floor sediments and the Arctic ice cap have provided a continuous record of climatic conditions for the last one million years, but individual sites cannot easily be matched to it.

How do ice cores work? Current period is at right. From bottom to top: Milankovitch cycles connected to 18O. From top to bottom: Ice sheets have one particularly special property. They allow us to go back in time and to sample accumulation, air temperature and air chemistry from another time[1]. Ice core records allow us to generate continuous reconstructions of past climate, going back at least , years[2].

By looking at past concentrations of greenhouse gasses in layers in ice cores, scientists can calculate how modern amounts of carbon dioxide and methane compare to those of the past, and, essentially, compare past concentrations of greenhouse gasses to temperature. Ice coring has been around since the s. Ice cores have been drilled in ice sheets worldwide, but notably in Greenland[3] and Antarctica[4, 5]. Through analysis of ice cores, scientists learn about glacial-interglacial cycles, changing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, and climate stability over the last 10, years.

Many ice cores have been drilled in Antarctica.

Last glacial period

But frequently used words can persist for generations, even millennia, and similar sounds and meanings often turn up in very different languages. The existence of these shared words, or cognates, has led some linguists to suggest that seemingly unrelated language families can be traced back to a common ancestor. Now, a new statistical approach suggests that peoples from Alaska to Europe may share a linguistic forebear dating as far back as the end of the Ice Age, about 15, years ago.

Radiometric Dating. How radiometric dating works in general. Why methods in general are inaccurate. Why K-Ar dating is inaccurate. The branching ratio problem.

Most of us who follow the mysteries are aware that huge numbers of carcasses of extinct megafauna, notably mammoths, have been found preserved in the permafrost of Siberia — the victims, it has been suggested, of some great cataclysm near the end of the last Ice Age. Most of us are also probably aware that similar claims have been made for Alaska; however, the evidence there has received less attention. It is this mystery, the so-called terminal Ice Age cataclysm and megafaunal extinctions of Alaska, that I want to take a look at here — hopefully with your help.

If anyone reading this has done any relevant research or can shed any further light on the subject, please tell me what you know in the comments section below. Writing in the April issue of American Antiquity, for example, Rainey, a professor of anthropology at the University of Alaska, described wide cuts, miles long and up to feet deep, that were then being sluiced out by the gold mining industry along stream valleys tributary to the Tanana river in Fairbanks District: No adequate explanation of the age of these deposits nor the manner in which they were formed can be given at present.

Ice-cored moraines

A drop in sea level of only about 55 metres exposed the floor of what is now Bass Strait, producing a land bridge of 15 million hectares figure 9. The present islands of Bass Strait would then have been hills overlooking a broad plain. Since beginning field work in Tasmania early in the s, Rhys Jones had always put forward the hypothesis that Tasmania was occupied by means of this land bridge at a time of lowered sea level.

Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed. The method compares the abundance of a naturally occurring radioactive isotope within the material to the abundance of its decay products, which form at a known constant rate of decay.

It made sense to worry that carbon dioxide did influence temperature. But by new data came in and it was clear that carbon lagged behind temperature. The link was back to front. After temperatures rise, on average it takes years before carbon starts to move. The extraordinary thing is that the lag is well accepted by climatologists, yet virtually unknown outside these circles.

The fact that temperature leads is not controversial. What follows is the complete set from , years to 5, years before the present. What really matters here are the turning points, not the absolute levels. The carbon data is unfortunately far less detailed than the temperature data. Beware of making conclusions about turning points or lags when only one single point may be involved. The graph which illustrates the lag the best, and also has the most carbon data is , , years ago.

Climate Data Information

This age is obtained from radiometric dating and is assumed by evolutionists to provide a sufficiently long time-frame for Darwinian evolution. And OE Christians theistic evolutionists see no problem with this dating whilst still accepting biblical creation, see Radiometric Dating – A Christian Perspective. This is the crucial point: Some claim Genesis in particular, and the Bible in general looks mythical from this standpoint.

Journey Through the Ice Age [Paul Bahn, Jean Vertut] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Some of the oldest art in the world is the subject of this riveting and beautiful book. Paul Bahn and Jean Vertut explore carved objects and wall art discoveries from the Ice Age.

However, these excessively long ages are easily explained within the biblical worldview, and 14C actually presents a serious problem for believers in an old earth. Nearly anyone can verify this for themselves using basic multiplication and division. Any carbon atom has six protons within its nucleus, but the different isotopes have different numbers of neutrons. Cosmic rays mainly high-energy protons trigger a process in the atmosphere that changes atmospheric nitrogen into 14C.

However, unlike the other two carbon isotopes, 14C is unstable and eventually decays back into nitrogen. The decay rate can be measured for a large number of these 14C atoms. Since this decay process slows as the number of 14C atoms decreases, it may be expressed best in terms of a half-life, which is the amount of time for half of any given sample of 14C to decay back into nitrogen. Thus, after one half-life, 50 percent of the original 14C atoms will remain.

After two half-lives, 25 percent of the original 14C will remain, and so on. Once they die, however, organisms no longer take in new carbon, and the amount of 14C in their bodies begins to decrease. But the calculated dates will only be accurate if the assumptions behind the method are correct.

How to spot a witch: Believers’ methods from the 15th to 18th century

The wide range of glacial types across the Antarctic Peninsula has resulted in a range of responses[2]. The response of land-terminating glaciers across the Antarctic Peninsula is particularly interesting, because land-terminating glaciers respond in a linear fashion to changes in temperature and precipitation. Land-terminating glaciers on James Ross Island and nearby land have been observed to be shrinking[ ], and this has resulted in several campaigns to monitor long-term glacier mass balance in the region[5, 6].

Studies of glaciers are limited to either a short temporal scale era of satellite observations or are limited to small numbers of glaciers field-based measurements. Aims and Objectives It is important to characterise the centennial-scale behaviour of small land-terminating glaciers in this region, in order to understand these short-term variations. Over a 7-week field season in January-March , Jonathan Carrivick, Bethan Davies and Neil Glasser investigated prominent moraines in front of small land-terminating glaciers.

The Ice Age: Causes and Consequences. The Ice Age has been a longstanding problem for uniformitarian thinking, with many unsolved mysteries. No mere tweaking of today’s climate conditions would cause such a catastrophe.

First, some preliminary remarks are given: It is the local or global mean height of sea level. How is MSL defined: This definition averages out tidal highs and lows caused by the changing effects of the gravitational forces from the moon and sun”. Mean Sea Level cannot be measured directly. It must be derived from other measurements such as hourly tide gauge measurements or proxy data sea level marks. The height of Mean Sea Level is given relative to a certain, arbitrary chosen, reference or datum level, e.

Mean Sea Level may rise or fall, relative to the zero point of the reference scale. The zero point itself is meant to be stable over time. This greatly complicates the problem of determining global sea level change from tide gauge data From:

Ice core basics

Are we headed for a new ice age? By Phil Plait June 17, 6: Can this mean the Earth itself will literally cool off, slipping into an ice age?

The Origin of Finland. About twelve thousand years ago, Finland (the area inhabited by Finns, Karelians and Lapps, between Norway and Lake Onega) was almost totally buried under a continental ice sheet, just as Greenland is today.

For a decade, the impact theory has posited that a period of sudden cooling that occurred around 12, years ago, known as the Younger Dryas event, was caused by a collision with Earth by a meteorite, comet, or some other celestial object. The most widely held theory is that it was caused by rapid melting of glaciers at the end of the Ice Age , which inundated the northern oceans with fresh water and created a sudden change in ocean currents and, therefore, climate patterns.

Proponents of the Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis argue that a celestial impact led to the demise of such iconic animals as the mammoth and the mastodon, as well as the decline of the Clovis culture. But proponents of the impact theory argue that a celestial impact triggered widespread wildfires and blanketed the atmosphere in dust, causing a collapse of ecosystems that led to the demise of such iconic animals as the mammoth and the mastodon, as well as the decline of the widespread Clovis culture.

This, despite the lack of any obvious evidence of such a recent impact. But supporters of the impact hypothesis have long argued that proof can be found at a microscopic scale, in the form of nano-sized diamond crystals, produced by the energy of the space crash.

How Does Radiocarbon Dating Work? – Instant Egghead #28

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